Today, Is Satoshi Nakamoto Happy or Preoccupied?

This morning, Satoshi Nakamoto should be happy. His or her creation has entered the door of finance through the quotation at the Chicago Boards Option Exchange. Probably, he or she feels accomplished looking at the sea through his yatch knowing that can now buy more yatch. Or, instead, looking himself or herself at the mirror is raising some questions like: is Bitcoin today what I envisaged about at the time of my famous paper? How would I like to see Satoshi Nakamoto, today? I would like to think that he or she is the second one. The one who has doubts about the current situation. The one who thinks that the cryptocurrency fever has moved the attention from the enormous potential applications of blockchain technology towards an exclusive tool for making money for very few skilled individuals. I think the second Satoshi Nakamoto sees technology as an experience to face and solve human problems. And, blockchain technology, and also the cryptocurrency part of it, has some tremendous potential for that. But, the Bitcoin fever has overshadowed that. Very few are interested in blockchain technology for Electronic Medical Records! A lot of people are interested in investing and return! I was the Chairperson at the Blockchain Summit in London at the end of November. There was a member of the audience asking a presenter from Bosch, discussing his experience with blockchain technology, if those projects were associated to a specific ICO. That tells a lot about where the attention is. At the Summit, the most attended sessions in my room were the ones about cryptocurrencies a part from a session on regulation. There was very little mentions on privacy. No one expressed concerned about cryptocurrencies in the hands of organised crime. There was a sort of general dream about the yatch I can buy next summer for cruising offshore in the Aegean Sea looking at the beautiful Santorini with my fellow friend, the first personality of Satoshi Nakamoto!

Motor Yacht Katara

Perhaps, I am just envious because I do not have the courage to embrace this new wave. I hide myself behind excuses and conjectures. And, probably, the second personality Satoshi Nakamoto has never existed. Satoshi Nakamoto is only and only one and he or she wanted all this and he or she has it now. Tomorrow,  in the sea of Santorini, he or she will take sime time to think at what else to do with the blockchain technology!


Long term NB-IoT success tests service providers’ innovation efforts by Yiru Zhong


Another provocative view from Yiru Zhong on NB-IoT, Chinese telecommunications and implications for the global telecoms market.


During the 5th China Mobile Global Partner Conference on the 24th November, China Mobile announced a RMB2bn (US$300mn) subsidy fund for use in 2018 to support the development of IoT infrastructure, specifically of NB-IoT and 4G modules.   Considering that NB-IoT deployments are expected to have a lower total cost of ownership to enterprises to run, its move could be generously considered as a desire to grow the market or as a more commercially minded strategy to capture first mover advantage and win market share against its peers in China. 

Despite this occurring in China, this subsidy has relevance for mobile operators globally too. 

1.       It is only a very small step from giving something away for free.  In the traditional perception that connectivity is a commodity, the reliance on price as the sole differentiator gives a false impression to enterprises that connectivity is easy to do.  IoT connectivity is complex to deploy and manage; operators rely on managing different types of connectivity and ability to offer carrier-grade IoT connectivity for guaranteed reliability, availability and security. 

2.       The subsidies suggest this is one of many options towards encouraging the scale of connections needed to compensate mobile operators for migrating some 2G IoT connections to NB-IoT technology.  For example, China Mobile revealed that they expect to charge a 2 tier tariffs; RMB20/connection/year (US$3) for up to 55 pings per day and another RMB20/connection/year for the 56th ping per day.  If we assume a 2G connection yields US$3/connection/month average revenue of a 2G connection, the volume of NB-IoT needs to be 12 times more than that of 2G’s to yield the same revenue per year.  I am not certain all the water metering and agriculture monitoring connections will reach the volumes needed to avoid a temporary dip in IoT connectivity revenue.   


3.       Another route to enjoy longevity in IoT connectivity revenue is to cultivate the eco-system that yields new services and data monetisation opportunities because of having a greater number of NB-IoT connections in the field.  This means funding for innovations projects, involving small and medium sized enterprises across all walks of life, to identify the use cases and revenue models. 

Overall, the tendency to drive down prices to encourage adoption often leaves scarce room for enterprises to innovate.  More importantly, economic inefficiencies from subsidies that distort market prices make society as a whole worse off.  The alternative use of that funding to support innovation efforts that yield new use cases and revenue models offers a more hopeful and sustainable route for IoT. 

Discovering the Beauty of Python with Patrick Arminio, Chair of Python Italia

I belong to the generation, who learnt coding using Fortran and C. I was not that bad as a developer, but, I cannot forget the headaches! Today, there are a number of tools for learning coding and a number of very versatile and easy-to-learn programming languages. Currently, Python is one of the most popular programming languages becoming extremely relevant among developers involved in IoT solution projects. We are going to explore the “beauty” and the benefits of Python with Patrick Arminio, Chair of Python Italia.


Saverio: Why is Python so relevant for the current software development scene?

Patrick: I think Python has become a popular language over the last few years especially thanking to web programming and more recently data science and machine learning. It also seems to be one of the most friendly languages for beginners. In fact, it is a lot in educational contexts, from university to coder dojos. I started using Python from a friend’s recommendation a bit more than 10 years ago, I then started using it for almost all my side projects and finally integrated it in my daily job. Something that struck me of Python is definitely the community, and I’m sure I’m not the only one that has the same feelings. The community is super supportive and open. I think I really owe a lot to this community.

Here are some references:
Saverio: Which are the most important application areas for Python?
Patrick: Well, right now AI is huge, thanks to frameworks like Keras and Tensorflow. Same thing for data science, with libraries like Pandas, Scipy and others.
I come from a web background and frameworks like Django and Flask, very user friendly and useful when creating back[end applications. Also having python supported on AWS Lambda is really good since it allows us to play with this new paradigma that is taking over the backend world.
Saverio: The market needs more software developers and more Python developers. How do we create them?
Patrick: We, with Python Italia and other organisation (like Fuzzy Brains) are trying to bring more people into programming organising Python Meetups all over Italy (we started this year) and also organising DjangoGirls events (thanks to Fuzzy Brains) in many Italian cities as well. We are also translating the official python docs in Italian eliminating a barrier for Italians trying to learn to program in Python.
Patrick Arminio was born in Switzerland, but grew up in Southern Italy. Patrick started his journey with Python during high school when a friend convinced
him to try it after chatting for a while on IRC. I then started going to all the 
Italian PyCons, starting from PyCon due back in 2008. From that moment I never
stopped going to any edition of PyCon Italy, including all the EuroPythons that
have been organised in Italy (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2017). In 2017 I’ve become
the Chair of Python Italia, the association that organises PyCon Italy.

Next Monday Conference on Smart Ports and IoT in Logistics in Genoa

On the 20th of November 2017, I will be in Genoa chairing the event “Digital Transportation Routes” on smart ports and maritime logistics. Beecham Research supports the event as sign of its continuous exploration of areas of applicability of the Internet of Things vision beyond the most well known ones.

Genoa Port

The conference will debate how the Internet of Things can contribute to the digital transformation of ports introducing efficient and sustainable operations. There will be several stakeholders, from port authorities to the shipping industry and the IoT community. The impact of emerging technologies such machine learning and blockchain on ports and logistics will also be important topics of the event.

During the conference, I will also highlight the importance of the smart port concept as a door to smart cities and smart regions imagining a data continuum from the sea to the land able to drive innovation from the port, through the city, to the region.

The topics of discussion of the event are summarised in the attached whitepaper produced by Beecham Research.


Beecham Research » The Iot Vision for Smart Ports

Bitcoin, please, do not sell me the promised land!

Since last July, when I wrote the first article on blockchain, I have written three blog posts, I have been interviewed twice on the topic, I have contributed to a conference on the topic. Am I a blockchain expert? No really. I am a researcher trying to understand the interconnections between blockchain and the Internet of Things. I do a fair amount of reading on the topic. And, also, most importantly, I listen to the experts. But, then, I think I need to filter between the experts and who is promising me a joyful future. In the latter category, there are a number of people contacting me presenting me a lucrative future with bitcoin. In their mind, I look like the picture below.

blockchain saverio

The blockchain/bitcoin expert promising “the promised land” comes to me with emails such as: “invest in bitcoin and you will earn €13,000 in 24 hours!” Now, my father uses to tell me that there is not such a thing like the promised land and there are not builders of promise land unless the builders have some return. Therefore, after several of these emails and conversations, I am start thinking that all this damages the beauty of the philosophy behind blockchain. Blockchain means democratisation of opportunities and eliminating favouritism due to not very transparent middlemen. If the main objective of the blockchain is becoming rich as quick as it is possible and effortless, then, the blockchain is not the revolution we are looking for!

When Nudging is Not Enough to Entrench Security Best Practices in IoT – by Yiru Zhong, Principal Analyst at Beecham Research

It is a pleasure to have Yiru Zhong, Principal Analyst at Beecham Research, writing for ETPO. Long experience in the sector, analytical thinking, Yiru always brings insightful perspectives and food for thought.


Richard Thaler’s win of the Nobel Economic Prize last month for his behaviour economics theory reminds us of the important role of psychology in everyday decision making.  He states that individuals make decisions not solely based on hard evidence but a combination of evidence and “irrational” inputs.  This theory and his pop-culture book on Nudge theory have been applied successfully in several public policies; the creation of Nudge Units around the world reflects the widespread belief in the theory’s efficacy to influence an outcome.  However, this has limited applicability to embed security and privacy by design practices in IoT deployments.  This is because unlike other nudge outcomes such as a ban on public smoking or the opt-in nature of organ donations, the shape of a desired outcome for security and privacy protection in IoT systems is ever shifting.  There is no such thing as the optimal security and privacy posture at a single point in time; the journey to get there differs from organisation to organisation, and most importantly, there are such vast differences in the value of security and privacy among individuals that stronger-arm tactics are required.

This week, ARM releases Platform Security Architecture in open source to address the challenges of adding security features at scale that befits the needs of the IoT vision of “more than a trillion devices”.  This is only one of several similar news in the last 2 months.  In August, the US Senate proposes a bill, “IoT Cybersecurity Improvement Act 2017 “, to ensure that government entities only purchase internet connected devices that meet a baseline security standard.  In September, the EU proposes a regulation to create a Cybersecurity Certification Framework to certify ICT products in the union.  Early October, the IIC showcased several joint projects at the IoT Solutions World Congress to demonstrate the positive cases that operations can perform as usual even after implementing IIC’s security recommendations from their Industrial Internet Security Framework.  These recommendations or frameworks are only a few of recent ones.  The upcoming General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) looms over enterprises to prepare for compliance on both data protection and privacy come 25th May 2018.  This can be considered the most strong-arm of all regulation; penalties for non-compliance are much higher at up to €20m or 4% of global annual revenue.  In comparison, the maximum penalty in the UK currently is £500,000 and TalkTalk’s breach only incurred a £400,000 fine.

The disparity in the types of top down tactics to encourage security and privacy best practices reflects the range of perceived value of security.  Spending on security is often considered as something to be tolerated, an expense to be made and at times begrudgingly, or something to be done because of heightened fear.  Already, enterprises face a shifting landscape of external and internal security risks and have a finite budget to build their arsenal of tools and skills to mitigate the risks as best as they can. With IoT deployments, many enterprises have started experiments without involving security professionals to provide the necessary framework to ensure deployments are also secure.  Checkpoint reported last week that another strain of IoT botnet (IoTroop) has been discovered and infected an estimated 1million organisations.  They also worried that IoTroop will have even more widespread impact than the Mirai-infected Botnets that brought down Dyn and subsequently cloud infrastructure provider AWS, among others.  Despite the reliance on fear to push security products, the more sustainable act is to spread the positive case of security investment, particularly in IoT deployments.  Beecham Research, together with Internet of Business, is conducting a survey to track IoT adopters’ attitudes towards security and privacy in their IoT systems, particularly to uncover perception of business value in security investments.  We would love it if you would participate in this survey.  In return, we would be happy to share with you the results of the findings.


Narrating Blockchain and the IoT – The Case of Tomatoes for Passata

My journey in blockchain and the IoT continues. I am trying to explain the meanings of the two concepts and their combination. I start with something important to me: tomatoes, passata and tomato sauce for pasta. It would be great to have your view.

I need good tomatoes of a specific type because I need to do good “passata” for doing the tomatoes sauce. I buy my tomatoes from a specific shop because I know the owner. My  father used to buy the tomatoes from his father. The tomatoes I have bought from him in the past years are very good quality and we know each other well. He has been bought those tomatoes from the same distributor. The distributor knows to find those tomatoes at a specific market, which sells tomatoes from specific farms. This chain – as showed in the picture below – is based on a chain of trust starting from me and ending to the farmers built in years of relationships.


But, one day, the shop owner wants to attract my attention on other types of tomatoes or on tomatoes coming from different farms. Everything has gone great until now. My passata is great. My sauce for pasta is fantastic. Why should I change? So, I ask the shop owner: how do I know that those new farmers are producing what I want? The shop owner answers me saying that we have a new system for understanding – tracking – the quality of the tomatoes and that that quality will be kept during the journey from the farmers to the shop. Tell me more, I say.

There are sensors in the tomato field. Those sensors gather information about the tomatoes telling the farmer when the right time for picking has come. The farmer puts the tomatoes in sensor-enabled basket sending to the market. They call all this smart farming. The data is exchanged between the farmer and the market sellers. That data should enable the market seller to know the perfect conditions to keep the tomatoes. The distributor arrives, purchases the tomatoes, and the data on the tomatoes is exchanged again. Meanwhile, the distributor has sensors in the vehicle that enables him or her to keep the perfect conditions of the tomatoes until they are the shop. You can then buy new perfect tomatoes for your passata. They call the data gathering and analysis Internet of Things. They call the exchange of data smart contracts. They also use the term Blockchain.


With Internet of Things and Blockchain, the shop owner can buy tomatoes from different distributors having the desired quality from different farmers without a traditional chain of trust.